Enactive Models

Enaction and its revolutionary vision of cognition enable to lay down new foundations for artificial intelligence : the enactive artificial intelligence Framework [Froese and Ziemke 2008]. The concept of representation of the environment is replaced by that of perturbation of a complex autonomous system. For example, in artificial life, one can simulate autopoiesis principle [Mc Mullin 2004], in robotics, using Continuous Time Recurrent Neural Networks (CTRNN), one can create agents able to adapt to environments for which they have no symbolic representations [Beer, 1992; Di Paolo, 2000]. Our concern is to evaluate theoretical limits of such approaches in term of complexity and epistemic limits in term of sense-making.


[Froese & Ziemke 2008] Froese, T. & Ziemke, T. Enactive Artificial Intelligence. This is a draft paper submitted for Artificial Intelligence (August 2007). Available on, 2008.

[Beer, 1992] Beer, R. & Gallagher, J. Evolving Dynamical Neural Networks for Adaptive Behavior, Adaptive Behavior, 1992, 1(1), 91-122.

[Di Paolo, 2000] Di Paolo, E. Meyer, J.; Berthoz, A.; Floreano, D.; Roitblat, H. & Wilson, S. (ed.) Homeostatic adaptation to inversion in the visual field and other sensorimotor disruptions. From Animals to Animats 6. Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 2000, 440-449.

[Mc Mullin, 2004] Mc Mullin, B. (2004). 30 years of computational autopoiesis : A review. Artificial Life, 10(3) :347-361.

Publication relative to this project

Pierre De Loor, Kristen Manac’h, and Jacques Tisseau. Enaction-based artificial intelligence: Toward co-evolution with humans in the loop. Minds and Machine, 19(3):319–343, 2009.

DOI link : , link :

De Loor P. Manach K. Fronville A. and Tisseau J. "Requirement for an Enactive Machine: Ontogenesis, Interaction and Human in the Loop. Enactive’08, 5th International Conference on Enactive Interfaces, November 2008, Pisa, Italy.

De Loor P. Train of thought on links between Artificial intelligence, Enaction and virtual reality. Invited speaker at the CNRS Summer School : Enaction and cognitive science. Cap Hornu. Septembre 2008.

Manach K et De Loor P. A study on the origin of anticipation by guidance for artificial dynamic cognition. ABiALS 2008: The fourth workshop on Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems. Munich. pp. electronic proceedin. Juin 2008.

Manach K et De Loor P. Passage du discret au continu: identification des verrous pour la simulation de systèmes autopoiétiques . ARCo'07, Colloque de l'Association pour la Recherche Cognitive. Cognition-Complexité-Collectif. Communications affichées.. Nancy. pp. 29-30. Janvier 2007.

De Loor P, Lannuzel A, Manach K et Harrouet F. Cognition dynamique artificielle appliquée à l'autonomisation d'un humanoïde virtuel. ARCo'07, Colloque de l'Association pour la Recherche Cognitive. Cognition-Complexité-Collectif. Communications affichées. pp. 16-17. Janvier 2007.

Manach K, De Loor P et Tisseau J. L'inscription Virtuelle de l'Autonomie. Actes du séminaire annuel du Laboratoire d'Informatique des Systèmes Complexes. Aber wrac'h. pp. 102-114. Juin 2007.

Starting Points

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